❯ Guillaume Laforge

How to remove accents from a String

My little puzzle of the day is to find how to remove accents from a String. There are different alternatives, different strategies, but none really suits my needs – or my taste.

The naive approach is to use String.replace() to replace manually all characters, with a correspondance table, like “é” should be replaced with “e”, etc. That’s fine for some languages I know, like French or German, or even some latin languages, since we share the same alphabet. But with Russian, Greek, or some asian languages, my knowledge won’t suffice! So I can’t reliably produce a big hashtable with that knowledge. What a pity!

The other two approaches are using a Normalizer class which decomposes a string in its smallest constituents. Thus, a character with an accent is composed of a non-accentuated character and a diacritical mark. Then, once I have this expanded string, I can easily remove all characters representing a diacritical mark, because they all belong to a certain Unicode category.

Sun’s JDK contains a non-public class called sun.text.Normalizer (which should be added to the JDK’s public APIs), and IBM’s ICU (International Components for Unicode) package also contains such a class. The following function will return a string without accents or other marks:

public String removeAccents(String text) {
    return Normalizer.decompose(text, false, 0)
                     .replaceAll("\p{InCombiningDiacriticalMarks}+", "");

Using Sun’s internal class is not a very portable solution, but using IBM’s 3MB-gorilla JAR may be overkill for just removing accents. But after all, what are 3 megabytes when your machines have gigas of RAM and disk space? Would it slow your apps down? Probably not.

Does somebody know of another way to remove accents from a String?

Update (2011/07/28): Sun’s JDK 6 now includes a Normalizer class. So for example, if you want to transform the accentuated letters to their non-accentuated form, you can do this:

Normalizer.normalize(title, Normalizer.Form.NFD)
          .replaceAll("\p{InCombiningDiacriticalMarks}+", "")

Update (2012/03/14): George suggests in the comments a better category: \\p{IsM} which covers more combining marks than just accents.